By Samuel B. Applebaum
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Extra resources for Demineralization by Ion Exchange. In Water Treatment and Chemical Processing of Other Liquids
Distribution ratio of steam silica to boiler-water silica for d r u m boilers at 500 t o 3000 psig and various p H values. the silica entering with the feedwater, but as the pressure increases, boiler blowoff becomes more costly, and therefore the a m o u n t of blowoff must be kept reasonably low (at less than 5 % of the feedwater). 01 20 concentrations means that the boiler water is twenty times as concentrated in analysis as the feed water. 58 3. 4 gives the silica tolerances in the feed water for drum-type boilers of various pressures, based on 20 concentrations, which corresponds to about 5 % blowofT.
They also partially reduce the load on the filters by making some of the iron settle out. Settling before filtering is usually recommended for well waters containing large amounts of iron and manganese (exceeding about 5 to 1 0 ppm). The addition of lime for precipitating some of the bicarbonate hardness, even when complete lime softening is not required, often helps the iron hydroxide precipitates to settle out. The calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide precipitates add body and weight to the iron hydroxide precipitates; the latter, formed alone from only a few parts per million iron, are often fragile and light and so are easily carried out in the effluent of the settling tank.
In most designs, baffles separated a mixing and reaction zone from a clarification z o n e ; the mechanical agitation in the first zone was thus prevented by the baffles from disturbing the settling in the second zone. The major four suspended-solids contact designs now being used for treat ment before demineralization are described in Chapter 4, Section IIG, which discusses coagulation, because the same equipment is used for that purpose. The solids contact units enable the cold-process lime-soda softening plants to reduce the residual hardness to 68 to 85 p p m (4 to 5 gr/gal) as C a C 0 3 with reasonable extra amounts of lime and soda ash.
Demineralization by Ion Exchange. In Water Treatment and Chemical Processing of Other Liquids by Samuel B. Applebaum