By Shuja Nawaz
In line with 30 years of study and research, this definitive booklet is a profound, multi-layered, and ancient research of the character and function of the Pakistan military within the country's polity in addition to its turbulent dating with the U.S.. Shuja Nawaz examines the military and Pakistan in either peace and warfare. utilizing many hitherto unpublished fabrics from the documents of the USA, the uk, and the final Headquarters of the Pakistan military, in addition to interviews with key army and political figures in Pakistan and the U.S., he sheds mild not just at the Pakistan military and its US connections but additionally on Pakistan as a key Muslim state in a single of the world's hardest neighborhoods. In doing so, he lays naked key evidence approximately Pakistan's various wars with India and its many rounds of political musical chairs, in addition to the Kargil clash of 1999. He then attracts classes from this historical past which could aid Pakistan finish its wars inside and create a stabler political entity.
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Additional info for Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army, and the Wars Within
Kamal Azfar, ‘Doctrine of Necessity,’ T he N a tio n , 2 April 2006. 6. Kamal Azfar, ‘The Swing of the Pendulum,’ T h e N a tio n , 10 September 2006. 7. In an interview with the BBC on Saturday, 17 November 2007 he declared ‘Have I done anything constitutionally illegal? Yes, I did it on November 3,’ he said, referring to imposition of emergency rule. ‘But did I do it before? ’ T he N ew s, Islamabad, 18 November 2007. 8. Mancur Olson, ‘Dictatorship, Democracy and Development,’ A m e r ic a n P o litic a l S c ie n ce R e v ie w , Vol.
Even Alexander of Macedon, who stumbled into what was perhaps the worst invasion route into India, through the mountains of what is now Bajaur, nearly lost his life fighting entrenched mountain tribes of this region. It is not surprising, therefore, that invaders who had some knowledge of the topography of the area used the Khyber Pass to enter India. For most, the base camp was the area of Kabul, where the mountains of the northern area of what is now Afghanistan debouched onto a plateau with rivers and orchards that offered promises of the sweeter waters of the Punjab and the riches of the Gangetic plains of India.
Yet, whenever the crunch comes, the Pakistan Army acts in its own or national interest rather than bending to the dictates of its US partners. • The army has generally performed well in its primary task of defending the country against external threats but it has failed to gauge the political will of its own people, leading to the loss of half the country in 1971 and to ill-thought out and autonomously executed military adventures beyond its borders in 1948, 1965, 1971, and 1999. Its junior officers and soldiers rank among the best in the world, but its senior leadership has let down the lower echelons in each of its wars.
Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army, and the Wars Within by Shuja Nawaz