Karen Ellicott's Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2010 PDF

By Karen Ellicott

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ISBN-13: 1414419821141

ISBN-10: 1414419813

ISBN-13: 9781414419817

ISBN-10: 1414419821

ISBN-13: 9781414419824

ISBN-10: 141441983X

ISBN-13: 9781414419831

ISBN-10: 1414453388

ISBN-13: 9781414453385

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On December 7, 2004, the country was renamed the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. On October 9, 2004, Afghanistan held its first national democratic presidential election. More than 8 million Afghans voted, 41% of whom were women. Hamid Karzai was announced as the official winner on November 3 and inaugurated on December 7 for a five-year term as Afghanistan’s first democratically elected president. An election was held on September 18, 2005 for the “Wolesi Jirga” (lower house) of Afghanistan’s new bicameral National Assembly and for the country’s 34 provincial councils.

PEOPLE Afghanistan’s ethnically and linguistically mixed population reflects its location astride historic trade and Afghanistan region and introduced Islam. Arab rule gave way to the Persians, who controlled the area until conquered by the Turkic Ghaznavids in 998. Mahmud of Ghazni (998-1030) consolidated the conquests of his predecessors and turned Ghazni into a great cultural center as well as a base for frequent forays into India. Following Mahmud’s short-lived dynasty, various princes attempted to rule sections of the country until the destructive Mongol invasion of 1219 led by Genghis Khan.

Afghanistan and Pakistan are engaged in dialogue to resolve bilateral friction. Pakistan is also seeking to repatriate its Afghan refugee population, which is concentrated mostly in the Northwestern Frontier Province. Iran Afghanistan’s relations with Iran have fluctuated over the years, with periodic disputes over the water rights of the Helmand River as the main issue of contention. Following the Soviet invasion, which Iran opposed, relations deteriorated. Iran supported the cause of the Afghan resistance and provided financial and military assistance to rebel leaders who pledged loyalty to the Iranian vision of Islamic revolution.

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Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2010 by Karen Ellicott


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