New PDF release: Concise encyclopedia of sociolinguistics

By R. Mesthrie

ISBN-10: 0080437265

ISBN-13: 9780080437262

ISBN-10: 1849723249

ISBN-13: 9781849723244

Offers uniquely entire and authoritative info on all elements of sociolinguistics.

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The Rhetoric of Attitude-Behavior Congruence Several writers have pointed out that people may engage in various mental gymnastics to justify the inconsistencies between their verbal attitudes and their overt behavior. In a highly influential essay, Gresham Sykes and David Matza (1957) explored five techniques of neutralization which youth may employ to justify commission of delinquent acts while professing adherence to conventional morality. Indeed, several studies had indicated that juvenile Attitudes and Behavior delinquents frequently express verbal support for the very norms they violate.

The other way bilinguals can bring in the other, less activated, language is to borrow a word or short expression from that language and to adapt it morphologically (and often phonologically) into the base language (see Borrowing). Thus, unlike codeswitching which is the juxtaposition of two languages, borrowing is the integration of one language into another. ). In these examples, the English words 'codeswitch' and 'tie' have been brought in and integrated into the French sentence. A second type of borrowing, called a loanshift, consists in either taking a word in the base language and extending its meaning to correspond to that of a word in the other language, or rearranging words in the base language along a pattern provided by the other language and thus creating a new meaning.

One factor that can increase the correspondence between attitudes and behavior is social support, as research on alcohol drinking by Rabow et al. (1987) demonstrated. Research subjects' attitudes were evaluated by agree-disagree survey items like, 'Social occasions seem more pleasant when people are drinking,' and behavior was measured by self-reports of how many drinks had been imbibed in the previous month. ' Pro-alcohol attitudes were associated with actual drinking, as was social support for drinking, and there seemed to be a complex interaction between attitudes and social support, with social support perhaps strengthening the connection between attitudes and behavior.

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Concise encyclopedia of sociolinguistics by R. Mesthrie

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