New PDF release: Colloid Science

By Cosgrove T. (ed.)

ISBN-10: 144432019X

ISBN-13: 9781444320190

Colloidal structures are very important throughout a number of industries, akin to the foodstuff, pharmaceutical, agrochemical, cosmetics, polymer, paint and oil industries, and shape the foundation of quite a lot of items (eg cosmetics & toiletries, processed foodstuffs and photographic film). a close knowing in their formation, regulate and alertness is needed in these industries, but many new graduate or postgraduate chemists or chemical engineers have very little direct event of colloids.Based on lectures given on the hugely profitable Bristol Colloid Centre Spring institution, Colloid technology: rules, tools and functions offers an intensive advent to colloid technological know-how for commercial chemists, technologists and engineers. Lectures are collated and provided in a coherent and logical textual content on functional colloid technology.

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9 12 overlapping diffuse layers. As the concentration of the electrolyte solution increases, the decay of the electrostatic potential is sharper. As a consequence, the colloidal particles will approach each other closer at higher electrolyte concentration. This behaviour becomes more pronounced as the charge of the ionic species (z) increases. 3b. As there are no ions present between the OHP and the metal surface, the electrostatic potential falls linearly in this region. From the OHP, the potential decreases exponentially towards the bulk of the electrolyte solution.

Let us consider a system which is repulsion dominated. 5kBT results in about 8% of the collisions giving rise to aggregation, whereas 25kBT results in less than 2 Â 10À9 % of the collisions giving rise to aggregation. The greater the repulsion the more stable the system. In practical terms a barrier of 25kBT gives a shelf life to the material of several months. 2 Sedimentation or Creaming In the presence of the Earth’s gravitational field an additional body force will act on the particles. They will tend to sediment if they are more dense than the medium or cream if they are less dense.

Aggregates will tend to sediment faster, unless they form a fully space-filling structure. The irony here is that systems which are unstable and weakly attractive can produce percolating, that is connected, structures which are stable against sedimentation. Typically this occurs when the attractive energy between the particles at contact is about –10kBT and is usually achieved using adsorbed polymers or surfactants. 3 17 Shearing Flows The application of shear forces can disrupt aggregates and increase both the number of collisions between particles and the energy of those collisions.

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Colloid Science by Cosgrove T. (ed.)

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