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Extra info for College Chemistry
The number of carbon atoms in the molecule, n(C), must be at least 1, otherwise the compound would not be organic. n(C) cannot be greater than 3, because 4 carbon atoms would contribute 48 to the total mass number given of the molecule, 44. Similar constraints limit the number of oxygen or nitrogen atoms per molecule. The possible combinations of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen consistent with the limiting mass are listed in column (1) of Table 3-3. Column (2) lists the mass numbers of the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen skeletons.
There are 2 atoms of nitrogen for each atom of calcium. This relationship can also be expressed in terms of moles: 2 mol N:1 mol Ca. 12. (a) How much sulfuric acid, H2 SO4 , could be produced from 500 kg of sulfur? (b) How many kilograms of Glauber’s salt, Na2 SO4 · 10H2 O, could be obtained from 1000 kg of H2 SO4 ? 08 g H2 SO4 ). We assume a 100% efficient reaction. Then, since the ratio of any two elements involved in the formula can be expressed in a ratio of the mass units (g/mol), we can use a conversion factor containing the information for both the sulfuric acid and the sulfur.
In fact, the mole is recognized in SI as the unit for one of the dimensionally independent quantities, the amount of substance. The abbreviation for the unit is mol. A mole of atoms of any element is defined as that amount of substance containing the same number of atoms as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12 g of pure 12 C. This number is called Avogadro’s number or Avogadro’s constant, NA . The value of this quantity may be related to the value of the u, listed in Table 2-1, as follows: Mass of 1 mol of 12 C atoms = NA × (mass of one 12 C atom) 12 g/mol = NA × 12 u 18 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR MASS; MOLAR MASS NA = [CHAP.
College Chemistry by Jerome Rosenberg, Lawrence Epstein, Peter Krieger