Read e-book online Chaos and structures in nonlinear plasmas PDF

By C. W. Horton, Y. H. I H. Ichikawa

ISBN-10: 9810226365

ISBN-13: 9789810226367

This ebook develops the topic of nonlinear plasma physics from a common physics point of view. It starts off with an outline of nonlinear oscillations, the parametric instability, the pendulum, and the nonlinear island overlap criterion. The Kolomogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) idea can be analyzed. Laboratory visualizations of the KAM conception are awarded for experiments in toroidal plasma confinement and rotating fluids. the themes of delivery in ExB flows and geostrophic flows are constructed in parallel, stressing the generality of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation. the twin nature of wave turbulence and vortex dynamics is built for plasmas and geophysical flows. The presentation of the topic of nonlinear maps exhibits how maps are relating to the nonlinear dynamics in plasma physics difficulties. quite a few area plasma and fusion physics examples are built through the publication. the ultimate bankruptcy offers with turbulence conception, renormalized mode coupling equations, and Kolomogorov-type spectra as transformed for anisotropic plasmas.

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The energy of the solar photons comes with a certain amount of entropy (Green 2006). Thus, the photogenerated carriers need to somehow dissipate the entropy they gain upon the absorption of solar photons and possibly some additional entropy generated by parasitic processes. They do so by giving away some energy as heat, which carries entropy, to the lattice atoms. Because the flow of entropy carried by a heat flow decreases when the temperature increases, dS ¼ dQ=T, equilibrating the entropy balance requires a larger loss of energy to the lattice atoms at higher temperature.

The Carnot and angle mismatch losses are voltage losses associated with the emission process. 3a shows the fundamental losses, for single-junction solar cells under one Sun illumination, calculated as a function of bandgap energy from the analytical approximate expressions together with the exact numerical solution of the Shockley-Queisser (SQ) limit. This representation, first introduced in Hirst and Ekins-Daukes (2011), makes it straightforward to visualize the potential of different advanced PV concepts.

In this configuration, conversion efficiencies up to 30% could be reached in real operating conditions (see also Safi and Munday 2015). A non-ideal cell would have a larger heat source and thus would need to have a larger bandgap and a corresponding smaller efficiency to operate at temperatures below ambient (see Fig. 8b). This cooling effect improves with increasing cell temperature (for example, it is calculated as 228 W m−2 at 57 °C, a temperature which is in the usual range of operating temperatures of PV devices).

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Chaos and structures in nonlinear plasmas by C. W. Horton, Y. H. I H. Ichikawa


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