By Priv.-Doz. Dr. rer. nat. Dipl.-Biol. H.-J. Wagner (auth.)
In many elements of vertebrate and invertebrate principal worried platforms, teams of nerve or receptor cells are available which are prepared and attached in response to an exact, functionally outlined trend (Braitenberg, 1973; Santini, 1975; Strausfeld, 1976; Chan-Palay, 1977). In those circumstances, teams of cellphone our bodies or synapses look as essentially comparable configurations, which, in spite of the fact that, are assorted intimately from one another. Such summary styles of connectivity are of a statistical nature and don't permit, in a given instance, for the prediction of the localization or connections of a selected phone. "Wiring diagrams", for this reason, will be acquired merely from a large number of person observations. by contrast, in different sensory organs, concrete styles happen that con sist of a standard, mosaic-like, and geometric association of comparable telephone varieties. The fidelity of this kind of mosaic permits predictions approximately yes devices of the development at the foundation of just a couple of exemplary observations. regular examples are present in the visible process: within the compound eye of bugs, every one ommatidium encompasses a certain variety of visible cells which are grouped round the optical axis in a hexogonal array (Kirsch feld, 1967); within the vertebrate retina, mosaics of geometrically prepared cones are chanced on most often in reduce vertebrates; they're universal between teleosts. a couple of stories have handled their phylogenetic importance and their useful position as version to precise environments or modes of feeding.
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References . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. fifty nine topic Index . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. sixty five 6 creation The retina as an organ of notion of sunshine, color, form and flow has been the topic of diverse and extensive mild- and electron-microscopical investigations.
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Additional info for Cell Types and Connectivity Patterns in Mosaic Retinas
It is surrounded by an area of light cytoplasm that contains occasional filaments (j). Accumulations of synaptic vesicles (sv) are observed adjacent to this region. At the vitread edge of the synaptic ridge, there are aggregations of synaptic vesicles that, in this area, fuse with the plasmalemma of the cone pedicle. The arciform density (ad) appears as an electron-dense rod in tangential sections. From the arciform density, fine, filamentous material extends to the plasma membrane of the synaptic ridge (arrows).
The external retinal layers of Nannacara anomala in semithin sections. In the transverse section (center), areas corresponding to the levels of the tangential sections 1 Oa-l Oh are indicated in brackets. In the upper right, tangential sections through the region of the visual cells are given; on the left and below, there are tangential sections through the areas of the external plexiform (EPL) and internal nuclear layers (lNL). a. Layer of rod outer segments and pigment epithelium. No regular arrangement of cells can be detected.
The pedicles of the central single cones, serving as landmarks for the visualization of the double cone mosaic, have been outlined in black; each single cone pedicle (scp) is surrounded by eight double cone pedicles (dcp). The rod spherules (rs) are distinguished from cone pedicles by a markedly less electron-dense cytoplasm. They are situated most often in the vicinity of the central single cone. Block-staining, Golgi EM impregnation, double staining of the section 39 Fig. 12. Tangential section through the external plexiform layer of Nannacara anomala.
Cell Types and Connectivity Patterns in Mosaic Retinas by Priv.-Doz. Dr. rer. nat. Dipl.-Biol. H.-J. Wagner (auth.)