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The visualizing approach to nano-flow is not very mature and more experiments should be practiced. Because of its wide connection to modern technologies, the research of the solid-liquid two-phase flow will attract more and more attention. 2 Scanning Acoustic Microscopy „SAM… Scanning acoustic microscopy ͑SAM͒ is a relatively new technique which broke through in the mid-seventies and was commercialized recently. The SAM uses sound to create visual images of variations in the mechanical properties of samples.

One possibility is to use cryogenic fluids such as super-fluid helium. 1 K, sound velocity is equal to 238 m / s, and attenuation is so small that it becomes negligible. 025 ␮m ͓98͔. At this level, cryogenic acoustic microscopy as a research tool may offer an alternative to electron microscopy. The ability to image below the surface of solids is another attractive property of the acoustic microscope. Many 30 PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF MICRO-NANOTRIBOLOGY TABLE 2—Practical resolution limits and penetration depth in a SAM †100‡.

42͒ ͓94͔. The transmission version can use a simple continuous wave, but in the reflection mode, pulsed signals should be used in order to separate the reflected signal from the transmitted signal. In the transmission mode, the ultrasonic beam passes through the object placed be- CHAPTER 2 Fig. 42—Schematic of a reflection SAM. tween the objective and collector. , for biological specimens. , for solid materials. The operation of a transmission SAM requires the lenses to be set up so that they are accurately confocal, which becomes difficult at high frequencies and shorter wavelengths.

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Appunti di Oleodinamica by Paolouzzi Zarotti

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