By Gábor Szabó
Merchandise reaction idea, even though it has develop into a widely known device in language checking out study, continues to be no longer used often in useful language review initiatives. This publication intends to supply a theoretical review in addition to to offer sensible information in regards to the software of IRT in merchandise financial institution development in a language trying out context through proposing a selected undertaking in a better schooling environment.
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Extra info for Applying Item Response Theory in Language Test Item Bank Building
All these parameters depend on the composition of the sample of candidates taking the test. Just like item parameters, person ability indications in classical test theory are inseparable from a particular population's results on a particular set of items. A partial solution to this problem is offered by the practice of standardization of tests. This is done by administering the same test to a representative sample of the target population, which is followed by an analysis of the results. These, in turn, are used as a framework for interpreting the results of subsequently tested candidates (Baker 1997:16).
While standardization seems appropriate to handle part of the problem identified earlier, meeting Bachman's standards is often difficult in practice. Though standardization of content, administration and scoring seems to pose no major problems, thorough piloting should involve a representative sample of the target population, which is sometimes not available or is not numerous enough for effective statistical calculations. Moreover, the sample's representativeness may be violated in the form of selection bias, for instance by involving culturally partial aspects (Gipps and Murphy 1994:73-75).
Step function ICC (adapted from Crocker and Algina 1986:342) When the ICC is presented as a function of ability on an ability scale, it becomes possible to identify the difficulty of an item, as shown in Figure 6. Figure 6 presents an ICC shifted to the "left" of an ability scale, which attributes numerical values to levels of ability. Negative values obviously do not indicate "negative" ability levels, but simply relate performances to a point zero on the scale. 5 (Traub and Wolfe 1981:378). In other words this means that a candidate is supposed to have equal chances of giving a correct or incorrect response if the 43 item's level of difficulty exactly matches his/her level of ability.
Applying Item Response Theory in Language Test Item Bank Building by Gábor Szabó